EDIT MAIN
Plus_blue

GLOSSARY OF TERMS BY TOPIC

Bilingual Education and World Languages

Bilingual Education Program (BE): A research-based educational program comprised of the following

instructional components: 1) Language Arts, which includes Home and English Language Arts; 2)

English as a New Language; and 3) Bilingual content areas.

Emergent Multilingual Learner (EMLL): Students who are identified by the Emergent Multilingual

Learner Profile Process as prekindergarten students whose home or primary language is other than

English. The English language proficiency of prekindergarten students is not assessed, and therefore

EMLLs may or may not be identified as ELLs when the ELL identification process is conducted in kindergarten.

English As a New Language (ENL) Program: A research-based English language development

program comprised of two components: 1) Integrated ENL: Students receive core content area and

English language development instruction including home language supports and appropriate ELL

scaffolds; and 2) Stand-alone ENL: Students receive English language development instruction taught

by a New York State certified English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teacher in order to

acquire the English language needed for success in core content areas.

English Language Learner: A student who, by foreign birth or ancestry, speaks or understands a

language other than English and who scores below a NYS designated level of proficiency on the

NYSITELL or the NYSESLAT. The federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) refers to ELLs as “English

Learners,” and ELLs are also sometimes referred to as Emergent Bilinguals or Dual Language

Learners.

Former ELL: Once an ELL has reached the Commanding level of English language proficiency, that

student is designated as a Former ELL and is entitled to receive two years of Former ELL services in

the form of a ½ unit of Integrated ENL or other services as approved by the Commissioner.

Multilingual Learner: All students who speak or are learning one or more language(s) other than

English, including: 1) current ELLs, 2) students who were once ELLs but have exited out ELL status,

3) students who were never ELLs but are heritage speakers of a language other than English, and 4)

World Languages students.

Multilingual Literacy SIFE Screener (MLS): A state-wide diagnostic tool that was created to determine

SIFEs’ literacy levels in their home language in order to provide or to design appropriate instruction

for SIFE.

New York State English As a Second Language Achievement Test (NYSESLAT): The New York

State English As a Second Language Achievement Test is an assessment designed to annually assess

the English language proficiency of all ELLs enrolled in grades kindergarten through 12th grade.

New York State English As a Second Language Identification Test for English Language Learners

(NYSITELL): An assessment that is administered once during the ELL identification process (or

during reentry after an absence of two or more years from NYS schools). It is designed to determine if

a student is an ELL at the time of the student’s enrollment in the NYS public school system.

Students with Inconsistent or Interrupted Formal Education (SIFE): ELLs who have attended

schools in the U.S. for less than twelve months and who, upon initial enrollment in schools are two or

more years below grade level in literacy in their home language and/or two or more years below grade

level in math due to inconsistent or interrupted schooling prior to arrival in the U.S. (NYSED is currently

pursuing regulatory flexibility in order that time spent in remote learning during COVID-19 closures do

not count toward the twelve months of enrollment at the time of SIFE identification).

World Languages: Languages other than English, which are broken down into two categories: modern

languages and classical languages. Modern languages include any language that has living, native

speakers, such as Romance Languages (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, etc.), Germanic

languages (German, etc.), Asian languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.), Indigenous languages

(Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, etc.), American Sign Language, and many more. Modern languages are

contrasted with classical languages, which no longer have living, native speakers such as Latin, ancient

Greek, ancient Hebrew, and others from earlier time periods in human history.

Career and Technical Education

Career and Technical Education (CTE): A kindergarten through adult program area of study that

includes rigorous academic content closely aligned with career and technical subject matter, using the

State learning standards of career development and occupational studies as a framework. It includes

the specific disciplines of agricultural education, business and marketing education, family and consumer

sciences education, health sciences education, technology education, and trade/technical education.

Career and Technical Student Organization: An organization for individuals enrolled in a career and

technical education program that engages in career and technical education activities as an integral

part of the instructional program.

Career Exploration Internship Program (CEIP): A registered work-based learning program that offers

unpaid career exploration experiences in the business setting. The focus is on hands-on career exploration

rather than on skill development. The experience assists students in choosing courses that will help

them to reach their college and career objectives. It also assists students in understanding the linkages

among school, work, and post-secondary education. Students may earn ¼, ½, or 1 unit of elective or

CTE sequence credit.

CDOS Credential: An exit credential that meets the definition under section 100.6(b) of Commissioner’s

Regulations

CDOS 4+1 Graduation Pathway: A Regents Diploma graduation pathway which allows a student

to graduate with a high school diploma if the student meets the graduation course and credit requirements;

passes four required Regents Exams or Department approved alternative assessments (one in

each of the following subjects: English, mathematics, science, and social studies); and meets the requirements

to earn the NYS CDOS Commencement Credential.

Cooperative Career and Technical Education Work Experience (CO-OP): A registered work-based

learning program that provides an important link between the classroom and the workplace for students

age 16 and older. The CO-OP is essentially a partnership that links school, community, and business/industry

to provide a real-world environment in which students have the opportunity to apply, and thereby

augment, the knowledge and skills obtained in the classroom.

General Education Work Experience Program (GEWEP): A registered work-based learning program

open to any student 16-21 years of age who is enrolled in school. These work experiences can be a

paid or unpaid and must be registered with the NYSED Career and Technical Education Team and be

re-registered every five years.

NYSED-Approved CTE Program: An approved program of study that meets both the requirements

under Perkins V for a program of study as well as Section 100.5(d)(6) of Commissioner’s Regulations.

Approved programs may be utilized to meet the 4+1 CTE graduation pathway.

Perkins Act: The primary Federal source of CTE funding to support CTE instruction and field support.

The act was reauthorized for the fifth time in 2018 as the Strengthening Career and Technical Education

for the 21st Century Act (Perkins V)

School-Based Enterprise: A school-based business enterprise exists within a school to provide services

for students, staff, and/or customers from the community. No additional credit is awarded for participation

in this experience; the credit exists within the related course.

Supervised Clinical Experience: Supervised clinical experience involves students performing health

care services in a work setting after having instruction and practice in a supervised skills laboratory.

The services must be performed under the supervision of an instructor who holds the appropriate NYS

license/certification in the health care discipline for which the students are being prepared.

Training Plan: A document developed by the work-based learning coordinator in conjunction with the

student and other appropriate school personnel that outlines the tasks, goals, and objectives to be 

accomplished during a student’s work-based learning experiences.

Work-Based Learning: Sustained interactions with industry or community professionals in real workplace

settings, to the extent practicable, or simulated environments at an educational institution that

foster in-depth, first-hand engagement with the tasks required in a given career field that are aligned to

curriculum and instruction.

Work Experience Career Exploration Program (WECEP): A registered work-based learning program

open to students 14-15 years of age who are considered “at risk”. These work experiences must be

paid and must be registered with the NYSED Office of Career and Technical Education and be re-registered

every two years.

Early Learning (Prekindergarten)

Diagnostic Screening: A preliminary method of distinguishing from the general population those students

who may possibly be gifted, those students who may be suspected of having a disability and/or

those students who possibly are limited English proficient; as defined in 8 NYCRR 117.2(f).

Eligible Agencies: An eligible agency, as defined in 8 NYCRR 151-1.2(b), are providers of child care

and early education, a day care provider, early childhood program or center or community-based organization

including, but not limited to, approved preschool special education program, Head Start, nursery

schools, libraries and museums which meet the minimum standards and requirements.

Statewide Universal Full-Day Prekindergarten: Programs for three- and four-year-old students that

incentivize and fund state-of-the-art innovative prekindergarten programs to encourage program creativity.

Universal Prekindergarten: Programs that provide three- and four-year-old children with universal

opportunity to access Prekindergarten programs as set forth in 8 NYCRR 151-1.

Voluntary Registered of Nonpublic Nursery Schools and Kindergartens: Programs for preschool

children between the ages of three and five years as outlined in 8 NYCRR Part 125.

Health and Safety

Aerosol Generating Procedures: Procedures performed on patients which are more likely to generate

higher concentrations of infectious respiratory aerosols than coughing, sneezing, talking, or breathing.

Cleaning: The removal of germs, dirt, and impurities from surfaces. Cleaning does not kill germs, but

by removing them, it lowers their numbers and the risk of spreading infection.

Cloth Face Covering: Masks made from fabric, preferably tightly woven cotton. Cloth masks should

include multiple layers of fabric.

Disinfection: A process using chemicals to kill germs on surfaces. This process does not necessarily

clean dirty surfaces or remove germs, but by killing germs on a surface after cleaning, it can further

lower the risk of spreading infection.

Fit Testing: A process in which all people who are required to wear negative-pressure respirators are

examined and interviewed to determine which mask best conforms to their facial features; a rigorous

protocol in which the tester challenges the face-to-facepiece seal with a chemical agent.

Hand Hygiene: Hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): A device that sprays a pre-set amount of aerosolized medicine through

the mouth to the airways.

*N95 mask: A type of respirator, an N95 mask offers more protection than a surgical mask does because

it can filter out both large and small particles when the wearer inhales. As the name indicates, the

mask is designed to block 95% of very small particles.

Nebulizer: An air compressor machine when used with a nebulizer cup, tubing, and mouthpiece or face

mask delivers aerosolized medicine to the airways in a fine, steady mist.

Peak Flow Meter: An asthma management device used to measure a person’s ability to push air out of

the lungs.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Wearable equipment that is designed to protect from exposure

to or contact with infectious agents. PPE that is appropriate for various types of patient interactions

and effectively covers personal clothing and skin likely to be soiled with blood, saliva, or other potentially

infectious materials (OPIM) should be available. These include gloves, face masks, protective eye

wear, face shields, and protective clothing (e.g., reusable or disposable gown, jacket, laboratory coat).

Respiratory Hygiene: Cough etiquette infection prevention measures designed to limit the transmission

of respiratory pathogens spread by droplet or airborne routes. Apply to anyone with signs of illness

including cough, congestion, runny nose, or increased production of respiratory secretions.

Spacer: A device that attaches to the mouthpiece of a quick-relief inhaler to create space between the

mouth and the MDI. The space created helps the medicine break into smaller droplets allowing the

asthma medication to move easier and deeper into the lungs of the student when he/she breathes in

the quick-relief or controller medicine formulated in an MDI.

Standard Precautions: A group of infection prevention practices that apply to all patients and residents,

regardless of suspected or confirmed infection status, in any setting in which healthcare is delivered

and include: hand hygiene; use of gloves, gown, mask, eye protection, or face shield, depending

on the anticipated exposure; respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, safe injection practices, and use of

masks. Standard Precautions combine the major features of Universal Precautions and Body Substance

Isolation and are based on the principle that all blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions except

sweat, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes may contain transmissible infectious agents.

Surgical Mask: Also called a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that

protects the wearer’s nose and mouth from contact with droplets, splashes and sprays that may contain

germs. A surgical mask also filters out large particles in the air.

Transmission Precautions: When Standard Precautions alone cannot prevent transmission, they

are supplemented with Transmission-Based Precautions. This second tier of infection prevention is

used when patients have diseases that can spread through contact, droplet or airborne routes (e.g.,

skin contact, sneezing, coughing) and are always used in addition to Standard Precautions.

Valved Holding Chamber: A type of spacer that has a one-way valve at the mouthpiece. A VHC also

traps and holds the medicine giving more time for the student to take a slow, deep breath reducing the

amount that settles in the mouth and throat.

*Some N95 masks, and even some cloth masks, have one-way valves that make them easier to

breathe through. But because the valve releases unfiltered air when the wearer breathes out, this type

of mask doesn’t prevent the wearer from spreading the virus.

Social Emotional Learning

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (0-17

years).18

Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS): An evidence-based approach to comprehensive program

delivery that addresses academic and behavioral challenges including proactive activities for all students

(universal interventions), targeted activities for students identified at-risk (secondary interventions)

and intensive activities for students identified at high risk (tertiary interventions).

Pupil Personnel Services (PPS): Staff which includes school counselors, school social workers,

school psychologists, mental health counselors and school nurses.

Restorative Practices: Processes and approaches designed to build community and meaningful

relationships, develop shared values, help students better understand their behavior, how it impacts

themselves and others, and ultimately to use that self- and social awareness to repair damage caused

to relationships as a result of inappropriate behavior.

Social Emotional Learning (SEL): The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning

(CASEL) defines SEL as, “the process through which children and adults understand and manage

emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain

positive relationships, and make responsible decisions.”19

18 Centers for Disease Control, (2020) Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences

19 Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2020) What is SEL?

Restorative Practices: Processes and approaches designed to build community and meaningful relationships,

develop shared values, help students better understand their behavior, how it impacts themselves

and others, and ultimately to use that self- and social awareness to repair damage caused to

relationships as a result of inappropriate behavior.

Trauma-Responsive Practices: Practices that help shift negative reactions to inappropriate student

behavior to thoughtful responses that consider the root causes of behavior and help to support individual

student needs to address those causes.

Special Education

Annual Review: An evaluation, conducted at least annually by the committee on preschool special

education (CPSE)/committee on special education (CSE), of the status of each student with a disability

and each student thought to have a disability who resides within the school district for the purpose of

recommending the continuation, modification or termination of the provision of special education programs

and services for the student to the board of education.

Assistive Technology Devices: Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired

commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the

functional capabilities of a student with a disability. Such term does not include a medical device that is

surgically implanted or the replacement of a surgically implanted device.

Assistive Technology Service: Any service that directly assists a student with a disability in the selection,

acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.

Child Find: A process which requires all school districts to identify, locate and evaluate all students with

disabilities, including students with disabilities who are homeless or wards of the State, regardless of

the severity of their disability and who are in need of special education and related services.

Committee on Preschool Education (CPSE)/Committee on Special Education (CSE): A multidisciplinary

team established in accordance with the provisions of Education Law that determines a student’s

special education needs and services. The CPSE is responsible for children with disabilities ages

3-5. The CSE is responsible for children with disabilities ages 5-21.

Compensatory Services: Services provided to students with disabilities to remedy the school district’s

failure to provide a student with a disability with “appropriate services” during the time the student was

entitled to FAPE and was denied appropriate services.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): Special education programs and related services that are

provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge to the parent,

and are provided in conformity with an individualized education program.

Individualized Education Program (IEP): A written statement for a student with a disability that is

developed, reviewed and revised by a CSE, Subcommittee on Special Education or CPSE to meet the

unique educational needs of a student with a disability.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): The IDEA is a federal law that provides students

with disabilities the right to receive a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment

from age 3 through the end of the school year in which the student turns 21 years or graduates

with a high school diploma.

Initial Evaluation: Any procedures, tests or assessments used selectively with an individual student,

including a physical examination, an individual psychological evaluation, except where a school psychologist

has determined that a psychological evaluation is unnecessary to evaluate a student of school

age, a social history and other appropriate assessments or evaluations as may be necessary to determine

whether a student has a disability and the extent of his/her special education needs, but does not

include basic tests administered to, or procedures used with, all students in a school grade or class.

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Placement of students with disabilities in special classes, separate

schools or other removal from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or

severity of the disability is such that, even with the use of supplementary aids and services, education

cannot be satisfactorily achieved.

Reevaluation: The evaluation procedures that are conducted at least once every three years, except

where the school district and the parent agree in writing that such reevaluation is unnecessary to review

the student’s need for special education programs and services and to revise the IEP, as appropriate. A

reevaluation may also occur when conditions warrant or when requested by a parent or teacher.

Special class: A class consisting of students with disabilities who have been grouped together because

of similar individual needs for the purpose of being provided specially designed instruction.

Supplementary Aids and Services and/or Program Modifications: Aids, services and other supports

that are provided in general education classes or other education-related settings to enable students

with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled students to the maximum extent appropriate in the

least restrictive environment.

Telepractice: Although not specifically defined in Part 200 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of

Education, the NYSED Office of the Professions defines telepractice as the provision of professional

service over geographical distances by means of modern telecommunications technology. This methodology

engages audio and/or video technology to connect providers with students, parents or other

caregivers in ways that support the student’s learning and development.

Teaching and Learning

Academic Intervention Services: Additional instruction which supplements the instruction provided

in the general curriculum and assists students in meeting the State learning standards; services may

include guidance, counseling, attendance, and study skills which are needed to support improved

academic performance.

Device: A computing device, such as a laptop, desktop, Chromebook, iPad, or full-size tablet.

Phones and mini-tablets are not sufficient devices for learning purposes.

Equivalent: At least 180 minutes of instructional time for instruction delivered in a traditional face to

face model, or a comparable amount of time for instructional experiences, taken as a whole when the

student is engaged in standards-based learning under the guidance and direction of an appropriately

certified teacher, for instruction delivered in an online or blended model.

Hybrid (blended) model: A combination of in person and remote learning.

In-person instruction: Instruction that takes place with students in attendance at the school building.

Remote learning: Instruction that takes place outside of the school building while the students are

not in attendance at the school.

Unit of Credit: The mastery of the learning outcomes set forth in a New York State-developed or

locally developed syllabus for a given high school subject, after a student has had the opportunity to

complete a unit of study in the given subject matter area.

Unit of Study: means at least 180 minutes of instruction per week throughout the school year, or the

equivalent. Equivalent shall mean at least 180 minutes of instructional time for instruction delivered

in a traditional face to face model or through alternative instructional experiences, including but not

limited to through digital technology or blended learning, that represents standards-based learning

under the guidance and direction of an appropriately certified teacher. Instructional experiences shall

include, but not be limited to: meaningful and frequent interaction with an appropriately certified teacher;

academic and other supports designed to meet the needs of the individual student and instructional

content that reflects consistent academic expectations as in-person instruction. Any alternative

instructional experience must include meaningful feedback on student assignments and methods of

tracking student engagement.

All the Time access: is a reference to the National Educational Technology Plan, which states the

expectation that technology-enabled learning should be available for all students, everywhere, all the

time (NETP 2017).

Sufficient access: to the internet means that the student or teacher does not regularly experience issues

(slowdowns, buffering, disconnections, unreliable connection, etc.) while participating in required

or assigned instruction and learning activities.